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  • Writer's pictureBonke Sutye

Aux armes, citoyens! France's Mining Gamble, Can It Become a New Mining Power?

Uncover the potential of 'France's New Mining Power' as it seeks to exploit domestic critical mineral deposits, impacting global supply chains and the economy.

The global energy transition towards electric vehicles and renewable energy sources has ignited a fierce competition for critical raw materials. These minerals, like lithium, are essential for battery production and other green technologies. France, historically a declining mining nation, is making a strategic gamble by seeking to exploit its own critical mineral deposits. This article explores the potential economic impact of this decision on established mining powers and France's prospects of becoming a new mining superpower.

The Rise of Critical Raw Materials

The demand for critical raw materials is expected to skyrocket in the coming years. The International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts a 40-fold increase in lithium demand by 2040 to meet electric vehicle (EV) production targets. This surge creates dependency on a limited number of resource-rich countries, primarily China and Africa.

The EU-Rwanda agreement highlights this strategic concern. While Rwanda possesses valuable resources like tantalum and lithium, the EU seeks to ensure a sustainable and ethical supply chain, independent of dominant players like China. This trend highlights the growing importance of geographical diversification for critical raw materials.

France's Mining Renaissance?

France's decision to exploit domestic lithium deposits signals a potential shift in global mining dynamics. The Échassières project in Allier aims to produce enough lithium to equip 700,000 electric vehicles annually, significantly impacting European reliance on imports. This move could revitalize the French mining sector, creating jobs and boosting regional economies. Additionally, France boasts stricter environmental regulations compared to some major mining countries, potentially leading to a more sustainable extraction process.

Impact on Established Mining Powers

France's entry into the critical minerals market could have a ripple effect on established mining powers, particularly China. China currently dominates the rare earth metals and lithium market, with significant mining operations in Africa. While France may not completely replace China's dominance, it could disrupt established supply chains and potentially lead to price fluctuations.

However, the impact might be nuanced. Established mining powers like Australia and Chile, major lithium producers, might benefit from increased collaboration with France to meet the rising global demand. This collaborative approach could ensure reliable and diversified supply chains for critical raw materials.

Challenges and Uncertainties

Several challenges remain for France's mining ambitions.

  • Environmental Concerns: Extracting lithium can have detrimental environmental consequences, including water pollution and landscape degradation. Sustainable mining practices will be crucial to gain public acceptance and avoid environmental damage.

  • Social Impact: Mining projects can spark community resistance and concerns about labor practices. France must address these concerns and ensure ethical and fair mining practices.

  • Technological Hurdles: Developing efficient and environmentally friendly extraction techniques for lithium and other critical minerals is crucial.

Is France a New Mining Superpower?

While France's renewed focus on mining represents a significant development, calling it a "new mining superpower" might be premature. However, this shift holds promising prospects. Here's why:

  • Diversification: France's entry into the market adds a new player, fostering a more geographically diverse and potentially stable supply chain for Europe and beyond.

  • Technological Innovation: France can leverage its strong research and development capabilities to develop sustainable mining methods that could set a new standard for the industry.

  • Geopolitical Significance: If successful, France's domestic mining program could lessen Europe's dependence on other geopolitical actors like China, enhancing strategic autonomy.


France's decision to exploit domestic critical mineral deposits is a bold move with significant implications. While challenges remain, the potential economic benefits and the contribution to a more secure and sustainable supply chain are compelling. France's approach, if successful, could usher in a new era of responsible mining practices, influencing the global industry. However, calling it a new "Enlightenment Period" for France might be an overstatement. True influence will depend on the success of its mining endeavors and their impact on the global landscape.




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